Tubular Batteries

Tubular Batteries

Tubular batteries are cast from low antimony lead alloy, with selenium, copper, tin, and arsenic, to protect the lead support from anodic corrosion.

Technical Brochure

Description

Tubular batteries are cast from low antimony lead alloy, with selenium, copper, tin, and arsenic, to protect the lead support from anodic corrosion.

Premium Range – The Ultimate Inverter Battery.
Tough Condition – Tough Battery with Thicker Plates.
Long Life – 1200 Cycles @ 80% DOD.
More Electrolyte per Ampere Hour.
Why tubular is better: The secrets are the multi-tube bag gauntlet and increased surface area of the positive plate.

Advanced multi-tube bag gauntlets are constructed of 100% polyester high-tenacity, multifilament yarns that are impregnated with an acrylic resin system and fixed crosswise to the tubes, while the spun yarn is used lengthwise.

– Largest Surface Area for active material gives longer backup and longer life.
– Selenium Inside.
– High porosity and low electrical resistance.
– Long Life in Tough conditions.
– Better Charge acceptance.

• Active Material:
-The porous structure of the lead compounds that produce and store the electrical energy within a lead-acid battery.

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• AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat):
-A type of separator material that is comprised of glass microfibers that absorbs and retains the electrolyte leaving no free liquid in the cells to spill. Batteries made with this battery separator are called AGM Batteries and classified under the VRLA.

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• Ampere:
-A unit of measurement for electrical current.

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• Ampere Hour (AH):
-The quantity of electrical energy corresponding to the flow of current of one ampere for one hour. This term is used to signify the energy stored in the battery.

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• Automotive “Starter” Battery (SLI):
-An automotive battery is designed to provide a short burst of high power to crank / start an engine.
-Depth of Discharge for a “starter” battery is approximately 5-15% of capacity.

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• Battery Capacity:
-The total number of ampere hours (AH) that a fully charged battery can output.

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• Boost Charge:
-A short time / high current charge process to ensure that the plates of the battery are charged sufficiently to perform desired function.

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• Circuit:
-An electrical pathway followed by flow of electrons. A closed circuit is a completed path whereas an open circuit has a broken or disconnected pathway.

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• Circuit Series:
-A circuit that has only one path for the flow of current.
-Please see Serial Connection.

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• Circuit Parallel:
-A circuit that provides more than one path for the flow of current.
-Please see Parallel Connection.

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• Cold Cranking Ampere (CCA):
-The ampere that a fully charged battery at -18 degrees Celsius can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain a voltage of 1.2 volts per cell or higher. (7.2 Volts for a 12 volt battery).

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• Corrosion:
-The chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material and its environment that produces a deterioration of the material and its properties.
-In Lead Acid batteries the positive lead grids gradually corrode during use – often leading to battery failure.

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• C-rating (C/20, C/10, C/5):
-The charge and discharge currents. i.e. a 100ah C/20 battery delivers 5 amperes per hour for 20 hours (100 ÷ 20).
-Automotive “starter” batteries capacities are usually expressed at C/10 or C/20, whereas Deep Cycle batteries are expressed at C/10.

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• Cycle:
-One sequence of charge and discharge.

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• Deep Cycle Battery:
-A deep cycle battery is designed to provide a steady continuous current over a long period of time.
-These types of batteries are specifically designed for Solar or other applications (golf cart, backup power, etc) that require the battery to be deeply discharged time and again.
-Depth of discharge for deep cycle type is around 70-80% of total battery capacity.

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• Depth of Discharge (DOD):
-The available percentage of total battery capacity available for discharge.
-Automotive “starter” batteries usually have between 5-15% DOD.
-Deep Cycle batteries usually have between 70-80% DOD.

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• Discharging:
-When a battery is delivering a current.

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• Dry Charged Battery:
-type of battery in which both the positive and negative plates are formed and charged in acid baths before being dried and assembled.
-The battery is activated once electrolyte is added, at which time the battery will give instant current and be ready for use.

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• Electrolyte:
-A dilute solution of Sulphuric Acid and Water.
-Chemical formula is H2SO4.

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• Equalization Charge:
-A supplementary charge utilized to ensure all battery cells are charged equally and that electrolyte is fully mixed by the gas bubbles (gassing).

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• Floating Charge:
-Method of recharge whereby a cell / battery is supplied just enough current to equal the self discharge of the battery, thus ensuring the cell/battery is maintained in a fully charged condition.

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• Flooded cell type battery:
-A form of rechargeable battery in which the battery plates are immersed in liquid electrolyte (battery acid).

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• Formation:
-A process of charging the battery or battery plates for the first time.
-This changes the lead oxide paste of the positive grid into lead dioxide.
-For the negative plate it changes from Lead oxide paste to metallic sponge lead.

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• Gassing:
-This process occurs when more current is supplied to a cell / battery than can be absorbed.
-Excess current produced Hydrogen and oxygen gas bubbles.

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• Gel:
-Electrolyte that has been immobilized by the addition of fine silica to avoid spillage.

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• Grid:
-A lead alloy framework that support the active material of a battery plate and conducts current.

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• Hydrometer:
-An instrument used to measure that specific gravity of the electrolyte.

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• Maintenance-Free Battery (MF):
-Similar to a dry charged battery, however, the battery is filled with electrolyte at the factory and ready for use by completion of the manufacturing process.
-Battery type that requires no water servicing during its lifetime of use.

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• Open Circuit Voltage:
-The Voltage of a cell / battery without any load (i.e. not receiving or delivering energy).

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• Over Charge:
-The process of continued charge of cell / battery after the point of 100% charge capacity.

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• Over Discharge:
-The process of discharging a cell / battery beyond its cut off voltage.

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• Parallel Connection:
-The term to describe the connection of multiple batteries with all like terminals (+/+ , -/-) connected together to obtain a higher AH  I.E. Two 12volt / 70ah batteries connected using the parallel method will give a total value of 12volts / 140ah (70ah X 2).

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• Plates:
-A thin flat unit that is comprised of the grid and active material.
-The plate supports the active material and conducts the electrons out of the cells.

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• Reserve Capacity (RC):
-The number of minutes that a fully charged battery can be discharged at 25ah and maintain a minimum of 1.25 volts per cell.

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• Sealed Maintenance Free (SMF) Battery:
-See Maintenance Free Battery.

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• Secondary Battery:
-A battery that can store and deliver electrical energy and can be recharged by passing direct current through it in a direction opposite to that of discharge.
-A lead acid battery is a secondary battery.

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• Self Discharge:
-The loss of capacity (discharge) of a battery while it is in an open circuit.

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• Serial Connection:
-The term used to describe the connection of multiple batteries with the Positive (+) terminal of each battery connected to the Negative (-) terminal of the adjacent battery to increase the voltage  I.E. Two 12volt / 70ah batteries connected using the Serial method will give a total value of 24volts / 70ah (12volt X 2).

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• Separator:
-A divider made of porous material, placed between the Positive (+) and Negative (-) plates, to allow current flow without direct contact between plates as this would cause a short circuit.

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• Short Circuit:
-An unwanted electrical connection between Negative (-) and Positive (+) plates.
-A short circuit can damage the battery and any connected equipment as well as causing sparks and or fire.

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• Specific Gravity (SG):
-The density of the electrolyte (battery acid) compared to water.
-The Specific Gravity of electrolyte is measured using a Hydrometer.
-A fully charged battery SG is 1.265 @ 25 degrees Celsius.
-A fully discharged battery SG is 1.12 @ 25 degrees Celsius.

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• State of Charge:
-The amount of deliverable low-rate electrical energy stored in a battery at any given time.
-This is expressed as a percentage of the energy when fully charged and measured under the same discharge conditions.
-A fully charged battery has a state of charge of 100%.

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• Sulfation:
-A term used to refer to the lead sulphate crystals that can grow on battery plates due to consistent low state of charge.
-Sulfation inhibits current flow and damages the battery.

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Terminal:
• The structures on the battery that allows the external circuit to be connected.

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• Vents:
-Mechanisms to allow the gasses produced in a battery to escape while keeping the electrolyte in the battery.
-Vents come in both permanently fixed (i.e. in the SMF / MF batteries) as well as removable (dry charged battery) designs.

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• Volt:
-A unit of measurement of electrical energy within an electrical circuit.
-Most batteries come as 6 / 12 or 24 volts with each cell as 2 volts.

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• VRLA (Valve Regulated Lead Acid) Battery:
-VRLA batteries are batteries produced utilizing either the Gel or AGM technology in which the electrolyte of the battery is been suspended as a Gel (Gel Batteries) or absorbed (AGM batteries) so that the electrolyte is no longer free moving.

Tubular battery technology seals the active material in polyester tubes called gauntlets, instead of pasting it on the surface of the plate. This has a wonderful result, of no shedding or corrosion, ensuring long battery life. As tubular batteries have desired toughness and durability, It can operate at extreme temperatures and are used in high cyclic applications involving frequent and prolonged power outages.
We take extra care in the composition of the alloy in the positive support structure, as well as in the way that the main backbone of the plates, called the SPINE, is cast, this ensures the long life.
Tubular batteries are cast from low antimony lead alloy, with selenium, copper, tin, and arsenic, to protect the lead support from anodic corrosion.
– Premium Range – The Ultimate Inverter Battery.
– Tough Condition – Tough Battery with Thicker Plates.
– Long Life – 1200 Cycles @ 80% DOD.
– More Electrolyte per Ampere Hour.
Why tubular is better: The secrets are the multi-tube bag gauntlet and increased surface area of the positive plate.
Advanced multi-tube bag gauntlets are constructed of 100% polyester high-tenacity, multifilament yarns that are impregnated with an acrylic resin system and fixed crosswise to the tubes, while the spun yarn is used lengthwise.
Autosol Tubular batteries are manufactured with particular tubular positive high pressure die casted plates that are designed for longer battery life. It includes a flooded battery design involving electrolytes. These advanced batteries are all processed and are ready to use. It has exceptional Eco-friendly Aqua Trap vent plugs which abstain any acid fumes. It is swell-resistant and has no chance of explosion or overcharging. It has sustained and long-lasting life as they have less corrosion. Autosol tubular batteries have splendid features like High Acid Volume per ampere hour, quick charge acceptance, and plate designed with special additives to get quick recovery from deep discharge at reasonable prices.

Gauntlet Characteristics

• High porosity and low electrical resistance – Low electrical resistance can determine a well-defined pore size that permits easy movement to the electrolyte, but at the same time reduces the active material shedding to a negligible amount.
• Good mechanical resistance and elasticity – The gauntlet resists the high pressure that the active material produces during its cyclical expansion. The fabric holds the paste pressed to the conductive lead spines ensuring stable performance. Mechanical resistance to abrasion during cell assembly reduces scraps and pollution.
• Reduced release speed of antimony – The fabric keeping the active material all around the spines acts as a filter for the electrolyte, reducing the release speed of antimony from positive grids. In contrast, for pasted plates, there is almost no distance between grid wires and electrolyte.
• Semi-rigid stability – The semi-rigid woven fabric gives the multi-tube bag a stable shape that permits an easy and quick filling procedure with paste, powder or slurry methods.
• High short-circuit resistance – Gauntlets can be supplied with a special solution for the two lateral tubes that result in a dramatic increase in plate short-circuit resistance. In particular, the ISM solution (where the external tubes have half of their fabric completely closed) gives the best protection against short circuits between positive and negative plates with only a minor increase in electrical resistance.
Due to increased positive plate surface area, tubular batteries have 20% more electrical capacity than flat plate batteries of comparable size and weight. With less positive plate shedding, tubular batteries also provide up to a 30% longer service life than flat plate batteries. Also, battery engineers in Europe attest that tubular cells are more widely used because they deliver energy at a faster rate.
Other Stationary Tubular Advantages Doubters of tubular construction might argue that flat plate batteries — due to their simpler construction — are generally less expensive to make and maintain. However, tubular batteries have been shown to have both a longer life and supply more power faster in an equivalent size, while still being produced at a competitive cost.

Tubular plates deliver energy faster due to:
• Compact structure.
• Increased mass and surface area of the active material.
• The ease with which acid circulates the tubular plate design.
Perhaps most importantly to stationary applications, the tubular positive grid does not require horizontal bars, which virtually eliminates positive plate growth and therefore post seal leaks and jar cracking. As a result, in applications which require a long service life, tubular plate batteries provide the best and most reliable power for the money spent.

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